1.6   Mandatory Measures and Compliance Approaches

'In addition to the mandatory measures, the Energy Standards provide two basic methods for complying with nonresidential energy budgets: the prescriptive approach and the performance approach. The mandatory measures must be installed with either method, but note that mandatory measures may be superseded by more stringent measures under the prescriptive or performance approach.

1.6.1    Mandatory Measures

With either the prescriptive or performance compliance paths, there are mandatory measures that must always be met. Mandatory measures include infiltration control, lighting systems, minimum insulation levels, and equipment efficiency. The minimum mandatory levels are sometimes superseded by more stringent prescriptive or performance requirements.

1.6.2    Prescriptive Approach

The prescriptive approach (composed of prescriptive requirements described in Chapters 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 10) is the most direct approach of the two. Each individual energy component of the proposed building must meet a prescribed minimum efficiency. The prescriptive approach offers relatively little design flexibility but is easy to use. There is some flexibility for building envelope components, such as walls, where portions of the wall that do not meet the prescriptive insulation requirement may still comply as long as the area-weighted average wall performance complies. If the design fails to meet even one of the requirements, then the system does not comply with the prescriptive approach. In this case the performance approach provides the most flexibility to the building designer for choosing alternative energy efficiency features.

A.         Building Envelope. The prescriptive envelope requirements are the required thermal performance levels for each building component (walls, roofs, and floors). These requirements are described in detail in Chapter 3. The stringency of the envelope requirements vary according to climate zone and occupancy type.

B.         Mechanical. The prescriptive mechanical requirements are described in detail in Chapter 4. The prescriptive approach specifies equipment, features, and design procedures that must be followed, but does not mandate that a particular type of HVAC system be installed.

C.        Indoor Lighting. The prescriptive lighting power requirements are determined by one of three methods: the complete building method, the area category method, or the tailored method. These three approaches are described in detail in Chapter 5 The allowed lighting under the Energy Standards varies according to the requirements of the particular building occupancy or task requirements

D.        Outdoor Lighting. The Outdoor Lighting Standards are described in Chapter 6. They set power limits for various applications such as parking lots, pedestrian areas, sales canopies, building entrances, building facades and signs. The Energy Standards also set minimum requirements for cutoff luminaires and controls. Outdoor lighting compliance is prescriptive in nature and is determined by the lighting application type (general and specific) and the lighting zone for each application. Detailed information on the outdoor lighting power allowance calculations is found beginning in Section 6.4.

1.6.3    Performance Approach

The performance approach (Chapter 11) allows compliance through a wide variety of design strategies and provides greater flexibility than the prescriptive approach. It is based on an energy simulation model of the building. The Energy Standards specify the method for determining an energy budget for the building.

The performance approach requires an approved computer software program that models a proposed building, determines its allowed energy budget, calculates its energy use, and determines when it complies with the budget. Design options such as window orientation, shading, thermal mass, zonal control, and building configuration are all considered in the performance approach. This approach is used because of its flexibility and because it provides a way to find the most cost-effective solution for compliance.

The performance approach requires that the annual Time Dependent Valuation (TDV) energy be calculated for the proposed building or space, and be compared to the TDV energy budget. The performance approach may be used for:

      envelope or mechanical compliance;

      envelope and mechanical compliance

      envelope and indoor lighting compliance; or

      envelope, mechanical, and indoor lighting compliance.

It is not applicable to outdoor lighting, or to indoor lighting in the absence of envelope compliance. The performance path is not available for sign lighting, exempt process load, some covered process loads (e.g. refrigerated warehouses), or solar ready applications.

TDV energy is the “currency” for the performance approach. TDV energy not only considers the type of energy that is used (electricity, gas, or propane), but also when it is used. Energy saved during periods when California is likely to have a statewide system peak is worth more than energy saved at times when supply exceeds demand. Appendix JA3 of the Reference Appendices has more information on TDV energy.

Four basic steps are involved:

1.   Design the building with energy efficiency measures that are expected to be sufficient to meet the energy budget. (The prescriptive approach requirements in  §140.0 through §140.8 provide a good starting point for the development of the design.)

2.   Demonstrate that the building complies with the mandatory measures (see Chapters 3).

3.   Using an approved calculation method, model the energy consumption of the building using the proposed features to create the proposed energy budget. The model will also automatically calculate the allowed energy budget for the proposed building.

4.    If the proposed energy budget is no greater than the allowed energy budget, the building complies.     Compliance Options

The Energy Standards have mandatory requirements, and prescriptive or performance methods for compliance. They establish a minimum level of performance which can be exceeded by advanced design and construction practices.

The Energy Commission has established a formal process for certification of compliance options of new products, materials, designs or procedures that can improve building efficiency levels established by the Energy Standards. §10-109 allows for the introduction of new calculation methods and measures which cannot be properly accounted for in the current approved compliance approaches.

The Energy Commission encourages the use of energy-saving techniques and designs for showing compliance with the Energy Standards. The compliance options process allows the Energy Commission to review and gather public input regarding the merits of new compliance techniques, products, materials, designs or procedures to demonstrate compliance for newly constructed buildings and additions and alterations to existing buildings.

Approved compliance options encourage market innovation and allow the Energy Commission to respond to changes in building design, construction, installation, and enforcement.

If the performance approach will be used for additions and alterations, see Chapter 11 for details.