5.1 Overview

The primary mechanism for regulating nonresidential indoor lighting energy under the Energy Standards is to limit the allowed lighting power in watts installed in the building. Other mechanisms require basic equipment efficiency and that the lighting be controlled automatically for efficient operation.

5.1.1    Significant Changes in the 2016 Energy Standards

   Reductions to some Lighting Power Density (LPD) values in Tables 140.6-B and 140.6-C.

   Reduction to LPD values in Table 140.6-G for applying specific Illuminating Energy Society of North America (IES) design criteria with the Tailored Method.

   New requirements for partial-ON occupancy controls in some spaces including private offices, conference rooms, multipurpose rooms, and classrooms.

   Removal of three Power Adjustment Factors (PAFs):

o Partial-ON Occupant Sensing Control

o Manual Dimming and Multi-scene Programmable Dimming for Hotels/motels, Restaurants, Auditoriums, and Theaters

o Combined Manual Dimming plus Partial-ON Occupant Sensing Control

   Addition of two new Power Adjustment Factors (PAFs):

o Institutional Tuning

     Daylight Dimming plus OFF Control

5.1.2    Scope and Application

   The Energy Standards, nonresidential indoor lighting requirements and supporting definitions are contained in §100, §110.9, §120.8, §130.0, §130.1, §130.4, §140.3, §140.0, §140.1, §140.6, and §141.0.

   The nonresidential indoor lighting requirements apply to nonresidential buildings, high-rise residential buildings (except dwelling units), and hotel/motel occupancies (including guest rooms) as defined in §100.1.

   The nonresidential indoor lighting requirements are the same for unconditioned spaces as for conditioned spaces, as defined in §100.1, except that Performance Approach trade-offs are not allowed between unconditioned and conditioned spaces.

   Some function areas within buildings classified as low-rise residential are required to comply with the nonresidential indoor lighting requirements (for example, §150.0(k)6B places additional lighting requirements on the common area in a low-rise multi-family residential building when there is greater than 20 percent common area in the building).

   Some function areas in nonresidential, high-rise residential, and hotel/motel occupancies are required to comply with low-rise residential lighting requirements. The low-rise residential lighting requirements are covered in chapter 6 of the 2016 Residential Compliance Manual.

   Hotel/motel guest rooms are covered by portions of both the nonresidential indoor lighting requirements and the residential indoor lighting requirements. The residential indoor lighting requirements are covered in the Residential Compliance Manual.

   Qualified historic buildings are not covered by the Energy Standards, as stated in exception 1 to §100.0(a). Historic buildings are regulated by the California Historical Building Code (Title 24 California Code of Regulations, Part 8 or Part 2, Volume 2, Chapter 34). However, non-historical components of the buildings, such as new or replacement mechanical, plumbing, and electrical (including lighting) equipment, additions and alterations to historic buildings, and new appliances in historic buildings may need to comply with the Energy Standards and the Appliance Efficiency Regulations, as well as other codes. For more information about energy compliance requirements for Historic Buildings, see Section 1.7.2 of this manual.

   All section (§) and Table references in this Chapter refer to sections and Tables contained in Title 24 California Code of Regulations, Part 6, also known as the Energy Standards or California Energy Code.

5.1.3    Mandatory Measures

Some requirements in the nonresidential lighting Standards are classified as “Mandatory Measures,” because they are required to be met regardless of the compliance approach used. There are no alternate options for the Mandatory Measures. All projests ust comply with all Mandatory Measures.

5.1.4    Lighting Power Allotments

Lighting Power Allotments are the established maximum lighting power (typically watts per square foot) that can be installed based upon the compliance approach used, the building type, and the type of primary function area. Lighting Power Allotments for an application are determined by one of the following four compliance approaches:

A.       Prescriptive Approach – Complete Building Method: applicable when the entire building’s lighting system is designed and permitted at one time, and when at least 90 percent of the building is one primary nonresidential  building type of use, as defined in §100.1. In some cases, the complete building method may be used for an entire nonresidential building type tenant space in a multi-tenant building. A single Lighting Power Density Allotment value governs the entire building §140.6(c)1

B.       Prescriptive Approach – Area Category Method: applicable for any permit situation, including tenant improvements. Lighting power values are assigned to each of the primary function areas of a building (offices, lobbies, corridors, etc., as defined in §100.1) This approach provides some flexibility to accommodate special tasks, by providing an additional power allowance under some circumstances.

C.      Prescriptive Approach – Tailored Method: applicable for a limited number of defined primary function areas when additional flexibility is needed to accommodate special task lighting needs. Several layers of lighting power allotments may be allowed depending on the space and tasks. Lighting power allotments are determined room-by-room and task-by-task. When using the Tailored Method, the Area Category Method shall be used for the remainder of the interior lighting in the building.

D.      Performance Approach: applicable when the designer uses an Energy Commission-certified compliance software program to demonstrate that the proposed building's energy consumption, including indoor lighting power, meets the energy budget. The performance approach incorporates one or more of the three previous methods which set the appropriate Lighting Power Allotment used in calculating the building’s custom energy budget.

The Performance Approach allows energy allotments to be traded between space conditioning, mechanical ventilation, indoor lighting, service water heating, envelope, and covered process loads. Such trade-offs can only be made when permit applications are sought for those systems involved. For example, under the performance approach, a building with an indoor lighting or mechanical ventilation system that is more efficient than the prescriptive efficiency requirements may be able to meet the energy budget for a standard designed building with more lighting power than allowed under the three prescriptive lighting approaches.

No additional lighting power allotment is gained by using the Performance Method unless it is traded from the space conditioning, mechanical ventilation, service water heating, envelope, or covered process systems. Therefore, the Performance Approach is not applicable to lighting compliance alone. The Performance Approach may only be used to model the performance of indoor lighting systems that are covered under the building permit application.

5.1.5    Forms, Plan Check, Inspection, Installation, and Acceptance Tests

In summary, the compliance process begins with the builder submitting Certificates of Compliance, which provide all design information necessary to show that the proposed project will comply with the Energy Standards, to the responsible code enforcement agency. Construction may not begin until all Certificates of Compliance are reviewed and approved by the agency. As construction proceeds, builders must submit Certificates of Installation certifying that installed equipment and systems meet or exceed the design criteria specified in the approved Certificates of Compliance. Code enforcement officials may conduct field inspections to verify information submitted by builders. At the end of construction, acceptance tests must be performed by qualified contractors on all specified systems to ensure they are installed correctly and function adequately.

If inspections or acceptance tests identify noncompliant or nonfunctional systems, these defects must be fixed before the building can be approved. Once the code enforcement agency determines the project complies with all building code requirements, including the energy code, the building will receive a Certificates of Occupancy, which certify that the building is in compliance with the Energy Standards.

5.1.6    The Lighting Compliance Process

Figure 5-1, below, shows the process for complying with the nonresidential indoor lighting requirements.

Figure 5-1: Lighting Compliance Flowchart


A.   First following the right side of Figure 5-1:

The Mandatory Measures are required regardless of the compliance method selected.

Select one of the four possible methods for complying with the nonresidential indoor lighting requirements of the Energy Standards. There are three Prescriptive compliance methods: Complete Building Method, Area Category Method, and Tailored Method; and one Performance Method where compliance is demonstrated using one of the software programs that have been approved by the Energy Commission.

This process will result in the permitted lighting power for the building.

B.   Second following the left side of Figure 5-1:

Calculate the actual lighting power installed by totaling all of the lighting proposed in the building design.

For any of the the three Prescriptive Methods (Complete Building, Area Category, and Tailored), subtract lighting control credits. The result is the adjusted actual watts of lighting power for the proposed building design.

For the Performance approach, adjusted actual watts of lighting power can be calculated automatically by the compliance software based on the modelling approach. Refer to the compliance software documentation for details.

C.   Conclusion

If the adjusted actual watts are less than the permitted lighting power, then the lighting in the building complies with the Energy Standards. If the adjusted actual watts are equal to or greater than the permitted lighting power than the lighting in the building does not comply with the Energy Standards and either the lighting power must be reduced, or additional lighting credits must be acquired from improved efficiency in other systems.